Downlink Packets from Lora App Server

Hi, I’ve successfully installed Lora Server and Lora App Server on an Ubuntu 16.04 machine while Lora Gateway Bridge is preinstalled on my Laird Sentrius RG186 gateway.
I have two questions:

  1. From the Live LoRaWAN frame logs of the related device I see a couple of uplink and downlink packets each 10 seconds. Why does this happen?

  2. By inspecting Moquitto I noticed that packets from LoRa nodes are published on the topic gateway “gateway/c0ee40ffff294618/rx” and than republished on “application/1/device/00d0bc3582dfb291/rx” with a different payload (decrypted right?). Moreover, I noticed that downlink packets are published on topic “gateway/c0ee40ffff294618/tx”, but when I “artifically” publish on the same topic a test packet, I don’t see it on the Live LoRaWAN frame log. Why?

Thank you for your help :slight_smile: